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Mathematics

Key stage 1 - Years 1 and 2

The main focus of math teaching in Key Stage1 is to ensure that all children develop confidence, independence and mental fluency with whole number, counting and place value.  Teachers should involve working with numerals, words and make use of the 4 operations. All of this learning must include practical resources for example concrete object and measuring equipment. It is imperative that the children work with the concrete objects before they move on to pictorial and much later the abstract.

During Key Stage 1, all children should develop their ability to recognise, describe, draw, compare and sort different shapes and use related vocabulary. Length, mass, capacity/volume, time and money should be taught and teachers must involve using a range of measures to describe and compare these different quantities.

At the end of Year 2, all children should know the number bonds to 20 securely and be precise in using, understanding and applying place value. It is imperative that an emphasis is placed on practicing all these skills at this early stage, as this will aid fluency.

It is also expected that children should read and spell math vocabulary at a level that is consistent with their increasing word reading and spelling knowledge by the time they leave Key Stage 1.

Lower key stage 2 - Years 3 and 4

The main focus of math teaching in lower Key Stage 2 is to ensure that all children develop increase fluency with whole numbers and the 4 operations, including number facts and place value. The children should develop and apply written and mental methods and do all calculations accurately with increasingly larger whole numbers.

Children should develop their ability to solve a range of problems and it should include simple fractions and decimal place value.  Through quality first teaching, teachers should also ensure that the children become increasingly accurate and develop their mathematical reasoning skills. This will assist them with the analysis of shapes and their properties and they will confidently describe the relationship between them.  All children must be able to use measuring instruments with accuracy and they need to make connections between measure and number.

The children should have memorised their multiplication tables up to and including the 12 times multiplication table by the end of Year 4, and they should show precision and fluency in their work.

It is also expected that children should read and spell math vocabulary correctly and confidently, using their growing word- and spelling knowledge by the time they leave Year 4.   

Upper key stage 2 - Years 5 and 6

The main focus of math teaching in upper KS 2 is to ensure that all children extend their understanding of the number system and place value to include larger integers.  This should help develop the connections the children make between multiplications and division with fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio.

In upper Key Stage 2, children should develop their ability to solve a wider range of problems, including increasingly complex properties of numbers and arithmetic. They should be able to solve problems with efficient written and mental methods of calculation.  With a sound foundation in arithmetic, the children are introduced to the language of algebra as an aid for solving a variety of problems.  Teachers should ensure that their teaching in geometry and measure consolidate and extend the children’s knowledge developed in number. It is very important that teachers ensure that the children classify shapes with greater complex geometric properties and that they learn the relevant vocabulary they need to describe them.

The children should be fluent in written methods for all four arithmetical operations by the end of Year 6. This should include long multiplication and division, working with fractions, decimal and percentages.

Children should read, spell and pronounce mathematical vocabulary correctly.

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